A microgrid presents various types of generation sources that feed electricity, heating, and cooling to user. These sources are divided into two major groups – thermal energy sources (e.g,. natural gas or biogas generators or micro combined heat and power) and renewable generation sources (e.g. wind turbines, solar).
In a microgrid, consumption simply refers to elements that consume electricity, heat, and cooling which range from single devices to lighting, heating system of buildings, commercial centers, etc. In the case of controllable loads, the electricity consumption can be modified in demand of the network.
In microgrid, energy storage is able to perform multiple functions, such as ensuring power quality, including frequency and voltage regulation, smoothing the output of renewable energy sources, providing backup power for the system and playing crucial role in cost optimization. It includes all of electrical, pressure, gravitational, flywheel, and heat storage technologies. When multiple energy storages with various capacities are available in a microgrid, it is preferred to coordinate their charging and discharging such that a smaller energy storage does not discharge faster than those with larger capacities. Likewise, it is preferred a smaller one does not get fully charged before those with larger capacities. This can be achieved under a coordinated control of energy storages based on their state of charge.
Point of common coupling (PCC)
It is the point in the electric circuit where a microgrid is connected to a main grid. Microgrids that do not have a PCC are called isolated microgrids which are usually presented in the case of remote sites (e.g., remote communities or remote industrial sites) where an interconnection with the main grid is not feasible due to either technical or economic constraints.
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